William and Mary


The Letter Grade Function & The Power of Quizlet

March 27, 2014 by

After one, maybe two semesters at William & Mary, a student should come to the understanding that an A grade here takes much more time and effort to earn compared to a B grade. It’s much like this graph of an exponential function.

Your Grade @ William & Mary

Many William & Mary students come here having performed extremely well in high school with the majority coming from the top 10% of their class.  Numbers that are equivalent to Ivy League schools and UVA.  So we smart kids can go to most classes, skim the readings, cram for exams and earn Bs with a bit of work. For the T.W.A.M.P.s (typical William & Mary persons), the future medical school students who use Miller Halls as a quiet study place at night, the future lawyers and grad students, and perfectionists who either want an A — we need to put a lot more work into earning that grade.

Obviously the scale isn’t the same for all classes, but it generally holds true.  I transferred to W&M a year ago and recognized this observation near the end of my first semester.  For challenging mathematics and foreign language classes, the separation between the amount of time/work required between an A and a B is even greater.  Many students are in 5 or more classes and have a list of organizations/clubs/teams with which they are involved, so time becomes a very scarce resource if one doesn’t get organized and study efficiently.

The main reason I wrote this article was to share the resource called Quizlet that my Spanish professor kept mentioning to help us strengthen our language skills.  She emphasized the vocabulary first and foremost because half of whatever task we have is designed to test vocabulary and if you know the vocabulary well, you will be better at other tasks that rely on it – grammar, reading comprehension, writing, etc.  I didn’t listen to her at first and just did traditional flash cards, scoring in the upper 80s on my Spanish quizzes.

Then, I actually started using it after a tutor (first time I ever went to a tutor) showed me the sets she made for her Spanish class.  It’s more than just digital flash cards.  For instance, it can read the flash cards to you so that you can study while doing something else, like driving.  In the morning I now connect my smartphone via Bluetooth to the car stereo system and listen to Quizlet rattle off vocab lists and verb conjugations.  Quizlet can test you on your knowledge with various test-like learning activities such as fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice, True/False, matching and auditory tests for foreign language studies.  Another neat feature is classes, where multiple users can contribute sets of Quizlet cards that everyone in the group can access. You can do all of this on their smartphone app while you are walking between classes.  I get a lot of learning done just driving to/from campus or walking to/from classes now.

On the first Spanish quiz I took after using Quizlet, I got a 100% for all the vocabulary sections and an A grade overall.  It really works, but this isn’t just useful for foreign language studies.  You will benefit from Quizlet for any class or test that involves memorization.  If there are any other cool pieces of technology that will save your fellow students time, effort, or stress, please share them in the comments section.

The Power of Teamwork: How I Know I’m Heading Down the Right Career Path

March 7, 2014 by

When I was in high school (and up to this point in college) all my school work had been rather lonely. In high school, group projects were only in class. In college a group meets just to delegate work for the individual members to do at home, and then meets up again to fit everything together. Most work is done silently and alone. The flow of knowledge is from teacher to student, and rarely do other students get involved in that relationship.

For most people, that works. I always thought it worked for me; it’s how I’ve been learning for the past 19 years. But this semester I started participating in more activities in the business school, and I found a totally new way of learning that makes more sense to me than anything before.

In late January, I participated in a conference called 3 Day Start-up, where teams literally build a company in 3 days. We started Friday night with everyone throwing around ideas for start-ups. New businesses do not need to be unique or revolutionary – you just need to do whatever it is better than anyone else. The 3DS participants with the best ideas pitched to the group, and we voted on 3 of our favorite ideas to execute during the weekend. We then split into groups and got to work. I ended up on a team that was trying to design a new hotel management system in which customers could check in on iPads and bypass the long check-in process. The traditional system costs about $30,000; we would sell ours for $4,000. Hotel clerks and clients would both have less hassle.

The guys who proposed this idea had been working on it for a while and already had a prototype set up. The team split into a group who worked on coding the system and a group who worked on marketing and business pitches. I was on the business side. My team spent Saturday doing market research – actually going from hotel to hotel to ask clerks what they thought about the product and what kind of suggestions they had for us. Learning about our market opened our eyes to a lot of nuances we would have never known about. Great Wolf Lodge, for example, we thought would love the idea because they get so busy at certain times. However, since they value customer interaction, they weren’t as enthusiastic about it as we thought. Other hotels, like the Hilton, thought it would be great during peak seasons or for business people who would rather avoid interaction.

On Sunday we worked on pitching the idea to investors and fitting the last pieces together. Watching everything come together was amazing! The prototype that the coders were working on all weekend looked like a professional app on an iPad. The business team had all the details of the pitch worked out. It was absolutely flawless, and I was so proud of the team.

The second instance of true teamwork happened for my Social Entrepreneurship class. The big project for the class is creating our own social venture in groups of 4. This is essentially like the 3 Day Start-up, except the start-ups are non-profits that help alleviate some sort of social problem. My group of four met up on a snowy night to figure out what in the world we were going to do for this project. What big social problem were we going to attempt to solve? We sat around pitching ideas, until someone said something that clicked for all of us: a website that crowd-sources local suggestions to fix local problems. We figured the best people to solve social problems are the ones actually there witnessing them.

With a big whiteboard and a rush of inspiration, we hashed out the business plan right there, challenging each others ideas and encouraging innovation. It was here that I had what I would call my first “flow” moment.

“Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does.”

I felt invigorated and unstoppable, and this, I realized, is why I’m a business major. I learn from my peers, not myself. Sure, studying for an economics test is rewarding and challenging, but my own efforts are not nearly as spectacular as the ending product through teamwork. Both these experiences showed me that the combined knowledge of multiple people who are committed to a goal is far more powerful than the singular knowledge of one person. A team is the convergence of multiple experiences, viewpoints, and educations. A well-functioning team can increase productivity exponentially.

I just got my acceptance letter to the business school a few weeks ago, and I’m already ecstatic by the possibilities ahead. In the first semester, called “the block”, administration puts together groups of 4 or 5 students that take all classes together and work on homework and projects together. I’m so excited to integrate teamwork into my everyday education. For the first time in college, I can really visualize transferring my classroom setting to a work environment. It’s thrilling and satisfying to know the path I’m choosing is leading to a career that I’m going to love.

The Value of Vinyl

July 25, 2012 by

I got my first turntable when I was 13 years old, but it’s only now dawning on me how the medium had avoided technological extinction. My turntable was a birthday present that I mostly used to play my mom’s old Beatles’ records on. Eventually, I started buying my own vinyl, usually used, just to say I had a record collection and occasionally hang the album art on the walls. Now, I will often re-buy my favorite albums on vinyl but for very different reasons.

I have been a paid subscriber to Rdio, an online music subscription service very similar to Spotify, for about two years now but the more I use it, the more I find myself wanting to switch entirely to a vinyl collection. Recently I found a video online that was part of the TED talk series by Barry Schwartz called, “The Paradox of Choice.” In this video, Schwartz details the way that having too many choices creates a sort of mental paralysis. The talk comes to a head as Schwartz argues, “the more options there are, the easier it is to regret anything at all that is disappointing about the option you chose.” The bad is amplified by comparison, while the good becomes more easily ignorable. It’s like eating while you’re still in the grocery store; of course you’re going to wonder whether the food on the shelves is better.

This video clicked with me immediately. I had been using Rdio to eat in the grocery store. Maybe this explained the romance of vinyl. Setting up a record is nothing like clicking “play,” or even finding the track on a CD. People often argue that turntables create a personal experience where they lack in efficiency. But the inconvenience of changing a record might just be the key to its appeal. When the choice is eliminated, the details start to come through. Once you relax and settle into a record, songs start to present something exciting and subtle. It was that inexplicable “better” that music snobs – myself included – always assign to vinyl. Not to say that something is better, or even worth listening to, just because it is on vinyl, but when choices are limited, those in motion start to come alive. I bet that finding those hidden melodies and building that personal relationship is the inspiration behind most music anyways.

I still use Rdio but I try to limit myself to exploring new bands and albums before I buy them and, since the service is low-cost, I’m trying to make the best of both worlds. Yeah, the Internet may have a world of music to chose from, but sometimes settling in (not just settling) is the key to enjoying your experience.

The One With All the Facebook

July 19, 2012 by

One of my favorite questions to ask in an interview is the uninvention question – “throughout history, there have been a lot of inventions that have changed the world. If you had the power to uninvent any one thing, what would you uninvent?” It really gives you an idea of what they find important, and it’s also a great way to see the inner workings of a person’s mind.

By far, the most popular answer I get is Facebook. I guess it’s the fact that we’re part of the technology generation or the idea that you take our internet away from us for one day and we go through withdrawal, but it kind of surprised me – the ability to uninvent anything, and you choose Facebook? The more I think about it, though, it makes sense.

Have we lost the importance of face-to-face interaction because of Mark Zuckerburg? Or do we appreciate it more because it happens less often? Have birthdays become less special because it’s no longer impressive to “remember” the day someone first cried their way on to Earth? Has Facebook chat and stalking people completely taken the joy out of actually getting to know another person? Are we quicker to judge because of what people put on Facebook? Or are friendships more superficial because you are now “friends” with anyone you meet for 12 seconds on a subway? And what about relationships – after all, we all know “something isn’t legit until it’s Facebook official.”

But imagine a life sans Facebook – would there be more “real” friendships? Or would we just find another outlet to procrastinate our time? We may not be as easily “stalked,” but I can’t imagine our time would be any more productive. Would keeping in touch actually become harder? And how would I be able to see those embarrassing pictures of you from the ninth grade? I don’t know the answers to any of these questions, but I will tell you this – without Facebook, I don’t know how I would have come across something this awesome:

So after much contemplation (and the occasional SVU break so as to not make my head hurt), I have come to the conclusion that if I could uninvent anything, it would be those silly, unanswerable, fake-philosophical questions people put in their blogs.

Technology in the Classroom

July 16, 2012 by

As college students in the 21st century, I think we can all agree how vital technology and the Internet has been to shaping our outlook on life. Everything should be easy, fast, and convenient. If it’s not, then we probably don’t want to be bothered with it. Our primary mode of communication? – texting. Think about it – when was the last time you talked on the phone with someone under the age of 40 (a generously arbitrary number since our parents still prefer to hear our voice every now and then).

I just read an article about the increasing use of technology in the classroom, with over 90% of teachers reporting they have computers in the classroom. The cartoon pictures of elementary school kids naturally led me to recall how frequently, or infrequently, we used computers during my K-5 years. With computers still an exciting tool, we would all look forward to media class during which we would play math games on the computer and learn to type without looking. It was an especially exciting media day if we were allowed to play Oregon Trail for the first ten minutes.

Those days are gone. Not just for our generation, but Generation Z and those to follow. Never mind practicing typing on those computational keypads (so annoying that you couldn’t see your entire document). Nowadays, kids play Angry Birds and Fruit Ninja instead of connect the dots and color inside the line drawings to pass the time.

When I think of college education, I certainly agree that students should be integrating various technology and software into their learning programs. It’s important to excel at common programs used in daily business – we know how vital Microsoft Suite is to following along in that “Computers in Business” class. But is it also necessary for K-5 students to learn math problems from a PowerPoint slide, have access to calculators, dictionaries and hundreds of irrelevant non-educational applications on tablets, and use etextbooks to read daily lessons? Some days, I feel overloaded with the abundance of technology available at my fingertips. I already type all my papers, do most of my research, communicate with friends, professors and other school departments, buy textbooks, listen to music, read news, and network all on my computer. There are so many distractions on the computer, from scrolling through pictures, playing games, and of course – the Internet, it’s almost a miracle I didn’t get side-tracked while writing this. But alas, there are some choices I make to avoid the severe infiltration of technology in our lives.

Thus far, I have deferred getting a smartphone. Sure to change soon, as I have begun to succumb to wanting access to every part of my life (all those important emails and notifications) at my fingertips. I take hand-written notes (which actually reinforces what you’ve learned better than typing notes). I keep an assignment book, and don’t rely on iCal to tell me when my paper is due. I avoid checking my phone during meals, and certainly turn it off on dates. I still print directions because I like to know where I’m going before I get there.

What am I embarrassingly guilty of? Carrying my phone with me everywhere around the house. Using my cell as an alarm clock in the morning. Not having a regular watch. Relying on music when I go for a run. Checking the weather five times a day to plan ahead. Asking Siri silly questions on my sister’s iPhone. Texting, rather than calling, friends to make plans.

Imagine a world where K-12 students are required to have iPads or other tablets instead of filling their school desks with pencils and crayons. It’s coming soon to a school near you. As we increasingly turn to technology for the most basic daily functions, I fear for ours and future generations’ ingenuity, creativity, fitness and social skills. As important and prevalent as technology is in our daily lives, I’m not convinced that young children should be so highly exposed in the classroom and jeopardize their excitement in hearty child’s play.

Inside Miller Hall

March 29, 2012 by

Today, my schedule for the Fall 2012 semester was created! I am really excited to be taking six business courses towards my Accounting major. Even more exciting is that all of my classes are in Miller Hall!

Miller Hall is the beautiful and new as of 2009 academic building which houses both the undergraduate and graduate schools of business here at the College. Some of the building’s perks include a business library, the Boehly Café, a career center, and a financial markets center. Additionally, the lounge on the first floor with the big fireplace is one of my favorite places to study on campus. Next year, I’ll never have to or will want to leave!

My freshman year, I took Principles of Accounting in Miller. The classroom was amazing and was filled with state of the art technology. On the way to class, I would pass by a dozen study rooms each equipped with a television making doing group projects an easier task. One thing that the business school stresses is working as part of a team. During the Integrated Foundation Semester (first semester in the business school), you are placed in a group. You take all of your Foundation classes with your team and do all of the group projects together. From the feedback I have been getting from juniors and seniors who have completed the Foundation, I am really excited for next semester!

When constructing the building, William & Mary wanted to keep it as green as possible and as a result, Miller uses 23.5 percent less energy as compared to a similar sized building. Equally as impressive, Miller Hall has received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold Certification from the U.S. Green Building Council!

For potential business majors or minors, I suggest taking the video tour. Prepare to be amazed!

Earth Structure & Dynamics: Dreaming in 3D

January 23, 2012 by

One of the courses I am teaching this term is Earth Structure & Dynamics (GEOL 323), a second-level geology course, and a required class for all Geology majors.  This course combines structural geology, tectonics, geophysics, and a pinch of historical geology.  Thirty-four students enrolled in this year’s class, that’s plenty, and free seats are hard to come by in the classroom.


Earth Structure & Dynamics class pondering the third dimension.

As you might guess from the course title, I want students to be well versed at recognizing and understanding how earth structures form. What is an earth structure? Anticlines, reverse faults, half-grabens, stretching lineations, and boudinage (to name a few). This requires three-dimensional thinking, and 3D thinking requires much practice. On Friday, I projected an image of a craggy mountain side in the Needles Mountains of southwest Colorado and asked the class to 1) sketch the geology, 2) identify the salient geologic structures, and 3) work out the temporal history of the geologic events. I annotated the image such that different rocks and surface landforms are illustrated. Talus is rocky debris that has accumulated at the base of the cliffs: I want the students to “see through” the talus to visualize the underlying bedrock structures.


Needle Mountains1

View of mountain side above Dollar Lake in the Needle Mountains, Colorado with geologic materials labeled.

The limestone crops out above both the gneiss and quartzite, and it is the only one of the bunch that’s not been metamorphosed, therefore it is the youngest rock in the scene. But which of the metamorphic rocks is the oldest? The class struggled with this one. From the image alone the age relations are not discernible, but notice the quartzite is weakly metamorphosed (in contrast to the gneiss, a well-metamorphosed rock) and the original layering (bedding) is evident. Based on this information the quartzite is younger than the gneiss.



Annotated photo illustrating geologic structures.

The boundaries between the different rock types are structures (referred to as geologic contacts). The limestone overlies the older metamorphic rocks along an unconformity, whereas the gneiss and the quartzite are juxtaposed across a fault (but just what type of fault?). Many students overlooked the significance of these geologic structures, but with practice, these abominations will stop!

The photo is two dimensional, but how best to help bring out the third dimension? Google Earth to the rescue—we zoomed from space into the Needle Mountains to about the same vantage point as the field photo was taken. With the tilt, pan, and zoom function it was easy to see the steep slopes of talus and that the limestone forms an erosional cap above the older metamorphic rocks. We will use overlays and tours in Google Earth to hone our visualization skills in the coming weeks. I want the Earth Structures students to translate from 2D to 3D without a hitch, by the end of the semester they’ll be dreaming in 3D!



Google Earth view of the same scene from the Needle Mountains.

So what is the temporal history of the geologic events?  Here is my interpretation from oldest to youngest:

  • formation of the protolith for the gneiss
  • burial and metamorphism to form the gneiss
  • uplift and erosion
  • deposition of sand that forms the protolith to the quartzite
  • burial and metamorphism affects the gneiss and creates the quartzite
  • tilting
  • faulting juxtaposes the gneiss and quartzite
  • erosion
  • deposition of the limestone
  • minor tilting
  • uplift
  • erosion to form the modern topography
  • I take the picture

What the Geology 323 students worked out was the relative timing of geologic events, a fundamental skill for earth scientists.  The next logical step would be to determine when, in absolute terms, these events occurred—that comes later in the semester when we delve into geochronology.

Swem Stress Relief Center

February 19, 2011 by

What? There is one of those? I know it’s hard to believe because stress lives on all three floors of Swem Library, especially the third which is too quiet for my taste. However, in the basement of Swem lies the solution to all problems, well at least for a little while.

Though I am revealing one of the most coveted secrets of my junior year, I feel compelled to share this little known fact with you. In the basement, there is a media center where you can book a studio equipped with microphones and recording software.

My friends use it to record our lovely voices to all types of songs, from country to Disney to rap and R&B.  It is hilarious and great stress relief. Who knew singing was so much fun. Sometimes we sounded good but most of the time we sounded not so good. We still have those tracks in our iTunes and every once in a while it will play and I just smile.

There is bonding between those laughs. You learn about background sounds that you never heard in the original song—because nine times out of ten they do not exist. You learn that half your friends really can hold a tune and if you all really tried, you all could sound phenomenal. However, it is a lot more fun if it sounds horrible, not record label worthy. So, what usually happens is you mess up and try to hit the high notes of Mariah Carey just because you will surely get a chortle or two. We had good times in Swem’s basement…now it is time to make your own good times.

Get Me The Griffin…And Get Him Some Pants

February 15, 2011 by

Admit It! You’ve been a bit perplexed by our mascot’s lack of legwear.  Last spring, William & Mary revealed a new Mascot; the Griffin.  The mythical creature has the head of an eagle (a nod to William & Mary’s American history as the second oldest college in the United States) and the body of a lion (a nod to our British heritage — the College was founded by royal charter by King William and Queen Mary of England).  Well, shortly after the Griffin’s unveiling, alum Jon Stewart ’84 was quick to joke his alma mater saying “Griffin” was ancient Greek for “rare pantless, tailed eagle”.

The Dress the Griffin app as shown on the iPad

Well, Jon’s quote was what, in part, inspired W&M’s most recent example of historical innovation, something we’ve been perfecting for over three centuries.  Today, the College’s Office of Creative Services unveiled the Dress the Griffin app for iPhones, iPads, iPod Touches and Android phones (the app is free).  Now prospective students, current students, faculty, administrators, alumni and Griffin enthusiasts worldwide can dress the Griffin in shirts (including one with President Reveley’s likeness), hats, gloves, shoes, and most importantly, pants.  Accessories, backgrounds and sound effects are also available so the Griffin can go from colonial merchant to hula bird to Elvis impersonator (or would that be im-bird-ator) with a few clicks and drags.

Want to attend a college with premier academics?  We’ve got great faculty for that.  Want to walk past one of the most romantic spots on a college campus everyday on your way to class?  We’ve got the Crim Dell Bridge for that.  Want to be inspired by a list of historical firsts as long as your arm?  We’ve got 318 years of history for that including the nation’s first law school, first collegiate honor code and first fraternity for that.  Want to take a class in the oldest academic building in the United States?  We’ve got the Wren Building for that.  Want to spend four years with a wonderful diverse, eclectic, engaging and intellectual student body?  We’ve got 5,800 undergraduates and 2,000 graduate students for that.  Want to dress our mascot?  Now we have an app for that.

Wendy Livingston ’03, M.Ed. ’09
Senior Assistant Dean of Admission

Class site visits

September 21, 2010 by

In addition to our biweekly classes that meet on Tuesdays and Thursdays after our internship, otherwise known as our “9 to 5′s,” we also have site visits on Friday. “Site visit” is really just a glorified way of saying field trip — at least that’s how I see it, and it’s fine by me — anything that keeps me feeling young is cool.

So far we’ve visited the Gelman Library at George Washington University, Library of Congress and its Packard campus for Audio Visual Conservation, C-SPAN, National Archives, and Pulitzer Center for Crisis Reporting. This coming Friday, which is Family Weekend, we’ll be having our site visit at the Newseum. During these site visits, we go on a tour of the institution with an employee while engaging in active discussion. From these talks, we learn a lot of valuable information that not only concerns the organization at hand but also issues that impact them.

Because we’re studying new media and culture, there has been a steady stream of keywords that continue to pop up during our visits and our class readings. We’ve come across issues such as digitization, intellectual property, copyright and fair use, the switch to HD, upgrades in technology, the integration of social media, and the use of new media to provide more access to consumers. Sometimes we pack the day with two site visits which doesn’t sound like a big deal, but surprisingly drains most of our energy!

We have been extremely fortunate enough to spend time with professionals that are passionate about what they do. Here are the names of the people we’ve spoken to–through the art of networking, we’ve  come across some alums. Speaking of alumni, we also had our Annual W&M Reception alumni event at the Embassy of Australia just last week for the greater metropolitan/Northern Virginia area. It was pretty sweet listening to President Reveley discuss why the griffin wears no pants (it’s not gender specific). This was of course during candid conversation. Reveley, more importantly, addressed how W&M is going through tough financial times, with 88% of our funding coming from private sources. He talked about how our College can no longer depend on the state of Virginia to help us out, etc.

Back to the subject at hand. Here were the professionals we spoke to and some of their key points they made:

Gelman Library, GW:

  • Ann Brown, Reference and Instruction Librarian: Brown discussed GW’s project on digitizing media (VHS, DVD) and making them accessible on Blackboard for students. She said their streaming services was a major hit at GW, with the library receiving 12,000 hits in one semester versus 1,500 circulation items over the course of a year. Some of the challenges their staff faced while streaming media included intellectual property rights, breaking encryption, and experiencing copyright issues.

Library of Congress:

  • Abby Yochelson, Reference Specialist: Yochelson informed us that the LOC has recently amassed all of Twitter’s tweets for archiving purposes so that future generations can look back at what we are tweeting today! Worth it? Only time will tell. Although, speaking from my internship experience, I know that the world of television and DC politicians love Twitter. It’s the new bathroom wall, Pete Williams, NBC Chief Justice Correspondent told us interns over lunch today.
  • Patrick Loughney, Director of the Packard Campus: Patrick engaged us in an active discussion on whether film is considered art. Is the medium itself art? Or is it only what is recorded on to the medium that can be so? What items are preserved and what constitutes the canon in media archiving? He also showed us sub-zero chambers where historic media pieces were stored, including Dorothea Lange’s “Migrant Mother.”


  • Brian Lamb, Founder and CEO of C-SPAN: Lamb discussed how C-SPAN maintains a lot of independence because it is not for profit. Not fueled by money, the public service channel is free to work on projects they think are relevant. Lamb talked about the power of change and choice that has come with new media, stating that during his youth, there were only 3 channels — Now viewers have the choice to watch what they want. It has changed the relationship and perception viewers have of news media.
  • Mark Farkas ’83, Executive Producer of historic programming documentaries covering the White House, Capitol,  and Supreme Court: Farkas stated that the news paradigm has changed much since the internet, and that with these new media changes, producers must react accordingly. C-SPAN manages change by leveraging the multi-platform of tv, radio, web to reach out to viewers in more ways.

The National Archives:

  • John Powers ’89, Civil Work Group II Leader- Classification Management of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO): Powers described that an archivist works with agencies to determine which records are permanent or temporary. They are responsible for archival processing and reviewing records for restriction. He stated that the National Archives is first and foremost an institution that protects the rights of citizens by archiving documents of national interest. There are currently 10 billion pages of paperwork that are classified to be permanent records of the government. Yet this only makes up 3 to 5% of the archive collections!

Pulitzer Center for Crisis Reporting:

  • Ann Peters, Director of Development and Outreach
  • Summer Marion ’08, Special Projects Coordinator
  • Peters and Marion, together, approached topics on journalistic ethics and standards. They explained that their news organization operates differently from other news outlets because it funds international projects that are under covered in main stream media. Some of their news projects include the water crisis and Lord’s Resistance Army.  Marion stated that Pulitzer Center strives to transform journalism from information to engagement. She mentioned that the reality of main street news was that “covering Britney is cheaper.”  In regards to conforming to main stream media, Peters commented that “regardless of how the media landscape changes, we have to focus on what our ethics and standards are.”